Results of the ultrasound confirmed an intratesticular mass about 3 by 3 cm. The lesion was well defined and the parenchyma outside of the tumor appeared normal.
View Testicular Cancer video and answer the following questions:
- 11. What are germ cells?
- 12. How are germ cell tumors further classified?
- 13. How do non-seminomas and seminomas differ in terms of growth rate?
- 14. What are the symptoms of testicular cancer?
- 15. What are the treatment options for testicular cancer?
- 16. Chemotherapy may follow an orchiectomy if:
- 17. Radiation may be used for cancer treatment. How does radiation help stop the spread of cancerous cells?
Blood tests were drawn at the initial exam with the oncologist to check for tumor markers (also see the Case Study Workbook, Tumor Markers). These tumor markers include alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).
- 18. What is a tumor marker?
- 19. What are 4 ways tumor markers can be used?
- 20. What is alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and where is it normally made?
- 21. When should AFP levels approximate those found in an adult?
- 22. When are high blood levels of AFP seen?
- 23. When are elevated levels of HCG normally seen in an adult?
- 24. Why is HCG an important tumor marker in germ cell tumors (testicular cancer)?
- 25. What is lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)? Where is it found in the body?
- 26. When will LDH levels rise?
Click here for tumor marker results.
CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were ordered to check for metastases. Cancers typically exhibit organ tropism when they metastasize. When testicular cancer metastasizes, it tends to spread to the lungs, brain, liver, and bone. Brain MRI was excluded from the initial testing because Max did not exhibit any signs of brain cancer. These signs include headaches, nausea, vomiting, problems with balance, or diplopia.
- 27. What is a CT scan?
- 28. How does a CT scanner work?
- 29. How does an MRI scan differ from a CT scan? How is it similar to a CT scan?
- 30. How does an MRI machine work?
Click here to view an image of an MRI scanner.