1. Orchiopexy literally means the fixation of a testis. It is surgery to move an undescended testicle into the scrotum.
2. Hidden testicle; the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum.
3. 30% of premature infants, 3% of full-term infants. 80% of cryptorchid testes descend by the first year of life.
4. Reduced fertility, increased risk of testicular germ cell tumors, and psychological problems. They are also more susceptible to testicular torsion, infarction, and inguinal hernias.
5. High-frequency sound waves.
6. A hydrocele is a buildup of fluid surrounding the testicle.
7. If the tube (inguinal canal) does not close after the testicles descend from the abdomen to the scrotum, fluid from the abdomen may drain down through the canal and get trapped in the scrotum.
8. Shining a flashlight behind the swollen part of the scrotum will cause the scrotum to light up, showing a clear fluid.
9. A varicocele is varicose veins in the spermatic cord. These are veins whose valves have become faulty. Venous blood backs up causing swelling.
10. A varicocele occurs in 15% of males 15-25 years of age.
11. Immature sperm cells or spermatogonia
12. Non-seminomas or seminoma
13. Non-seminomas are more aggressive and spread quickly. Seminomas tend to progress at a slower rate.
14. Painless mass on the testicle or testicular pain or swelling.
15. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination of these.
16. There are enlarged abdominal lymph nodes or there is the presence of cancer in blood samples.
17. Radiation uses high-energy X-rays to target a specific area to kill cancerous cells.
18. A tumor marker is a molecule (usually a protein, hormone, enzyme, or genetic marker) occurring in blood or tissue whose measurement or identification is useful in patient diagnosis or clinical management.
19. (1) Used for cancer screening. For example, PSA tests which screen for prostate cancer.
(2) Diagnosing cancer
(3) Determining the patient prognosis
(4) Monitoring cancer’s course in a patient.
20. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein, normally made by immature liver cells in the fetus.
21. AFP protein levels should fall to those of an adult by the first year of life.
22. Hepatocellular Carcinoma, germ cell tumors (cancer of the testes and ovaries), metastatic cancer of the liver.
23. Pregnancy, made by cells of the placenta.
24. The HCG level correlates with the tumor mass. It can help determine if the tumor is shrinking (help with prognosis).
25. LDH is an enzyme that produces energy. It is found in almost all of the tissues in the body.
26. LDH rises when there is cell (tissue) damage.
27. Computed tomography (CT), also known as computerized axial tomography (CAT), uses X-rays images with a computer to generate cross-sectional views.
28. A large donut-shaped X-ray machine takes images at many different angles around the body. The images can be combined using a computer.
29. An MRI scan uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer. Unlike a CT scan, no X-rays are used.
30. A giant, circular magnet in a tube creates a strong magnetic field. Protons (positively charged particles of an atom) are aligned by the magnet. These protons are then exposed to radio waves that produce a signal processed by a computer, resulting in an image. Images are very detailed. Like a CT scan, an MRI takes many pictures of cross-sections of the body to generate cross-sectional views.
31. An orchiectomy is the removal of one or both testicles.
32. Seminomas, Nonseminomas
33. Cells that produce gametes: eggs in females and sperm in males.
34. Stage 3C
35. Stage 1
36. Stage 2
37. Chemotherapy consists of medications that circulate through the bloodstream and damage actively dividing cells.
38. Cancer cells are rapidly dividing cells. This rapid rate of cell division is susceptible to chemotherapy drugs.
39. Yes, normal cells are damaged leading to the side effects of chemotherapy.
40. Fatigue, hair loss, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, drop in WBCs, RBCs, and platelets, loss of fertility, numbness or tingling in fingers and toes, metallic taste.
41. Until the donor is 55 years of age.
42. Complete response: All of cancer or tumor disappears. If there are tumor markers they fall within the normal range.
Partial response: Cancer has shrunk but is still there. A tumor marker may have fallen but is still out of normal range.
Stable disease: cancer remains the same; it has not grown or shrunk. Tumor marker would not have changed significantly.
Disease progression: Cancer has grown; more disease now than before treatment. The tumor marker is rising.
43. Pain or tenderness in lower abdomen, inability to pass gas or have a bowel movement, pus coming from incision, retrograde ejaculation (semen goes inside the body instead of coming out) which may lead to fertility problems in men, incisional hernia