Musculi Laryngis et Trachealis - Annotations

(36)  M. cricohyoideus dorsalis; M. cricohyoideus ventralis. These two muscles connect Os basihyale with Cartilago cricoidea.  With M. hyovalvularis and M. tracheovalvularis, they form the principal musculature of the avian oropharynx,  integrated into the functional apparatus directly governing movements of the "ventral pharyngeal valves" and "pharyngeal scrapers", independent from lingual, glottal and beak movements (Columba, Zweers,1982; Zweers and Berkhoudt,1987; Heidweiller and Zweers,1990).  All four muscles are more fully described in Resp. Annot. 45, and Figs. 8.___.


(37)  Musculi laryngis [laryngeales]; Musculi tracheales.   Differences in the construction of the passeriform larynx (Corvus sp.) from that of the nonpasseriform larynx (Columba livia), and the attendant kinematic possibilities, suggest that there are at least two different types of operational [functional] laryngeal systems in birds (Zweers et al.,1981; Zweers and Berkhoudt,1987).  The mechanism of the larynx of Columba has also been incorporated into elements of the feeding system (Zweers,1982).  For further description of both of these muscle systems, see Resp. Annot. 30 and 45.

(38)  M. dilator glottidis; M. constrictor glottidis.  The attachments, functional role, and related terminology for these two muscles is fully described in Resp. Annot. 30.  For additional description of the laryngeal musculoskeletal system, see also Resp. Annot. 25, 27, 28, 29, and 45; PNS  Annot. 53.