Working Papers

The following works that are currently in various stages of completion (if the pronoun is singular, it is a single author; if the pronoun is plural, there are co-authors on the project).  If you have any comments, please email me.

Presidential Mandate or Congressional Priming: An Empirical Analysis of Presidential Success in Congress


While the predominant perception of the relationship between the Congress and the presidency this past century has been one of the president leading, current research is beginning to put that assumption to the empirical test. In this study, I refute the old idea that Congress is a secondary player in the separated system by introducing a new variable: congressional history on legislation. When we open up the analysis to include the Congress’ own percolating agenda we find that the legislative branch is more of a player than previously acknowledged.

Do We Encourage Citizenship: Social Studies Curricula in the Various States

In 1787, the Northwest Ordinance dictated that in order encourage good character in its citizens, territories would have to have a school. Thus public education in this country has been in the business of training citizens since its inception. We look at the social studies curricula of the various states in this nation to see whether good citizenship is being encouraged. As there is no end of level test in this area and as common core provides no guidelines in this area, we can look to see what happens with regard to citizenship in states with different types of encouragement.