Documentation/Reference Guide

In order to have consistent documentation and references in the articles published in Ergo, submissions must be formatted according to the following examples.  However, because there are so many possible sources, it is not possible to show an example of every kind of reference that students may use in their research.  As a general rule, Ergo prefers that all manuscripts follow the APA citation format.

For further help and questions, students are encouraged to visit the Writing Center in SC 261.  The Writing Center tutors have been advised about helping students who are submitting to Ergo.
References (Bibliography)


References (Bibliography)


All references that are cited in a submission should be listed at the end of the submission on a separate page called the "References" page.  References should be organized in alphabetical order and with a hanging indent.
Book with one author
Last Name, First/Middle Initials. (year).  Title of the book in Italics (edition-if necessary).  Publication information. City: Publisher.
Lapote, P. (1997). The art of writing and finding truth in words. (3rd ed.).  Amsterdam: Barnaby.
Book with more than one author
Last Name, First/Middle Initials., Last Name, Initials., Last Name, Initial., & Last Name, Initial. (year). Title of the book in Italics (edition-if necessary). Publication information. City: Publisher.
Periodical (journal or magazine)
Last Name, First/Middle Initials. (year).  Title of the journal or magazine article.  Name of the journal or magazine in Italics, Issue.Volume, page numbers of entire article.
Newspaper article
Last Name, First/Middle Initials. (Year, Month and Day).  Article title.  Name of the Newspaper in Italics, page numbers of the article.
Internet Sources
         Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue number if available). Retrieved month day, year, from

*Note: Include the name of the online database the article was retrieved from and the date accessed if necessary.

Internal Citations

The first part of an internal citation should be the first word or words of the reference on the "References" page, that way anybody reading the article can easily find the source.  Usually it is the author, but if there is no author, start with the first part of the citation.The following are examples of in-text citations that were not preceded by any other information, such as the author's name. If this information is previously mentioned, there is no need to include it in the citation.
In 1999, Smith and Jones concluded that the research method was flawed (p. 120).
As Smith and Jones stated, "The methods used in previous analysis resulted in inconclusive and incorrect data as compared to other methods" (1999, p. 120).
For basic internal APA citation formatting, see the following list:

Works by one author
(Castro, 1983, p. 233)
Works by two authors 
(Townsend & Barker, 1999, p. 24)
Works by three to five authors* 
(Woods, Smithers, & Bradbury, 2006, p. 3)

*Note: In works by three to five authors, use the last name of the first author followed by et al. as shown in the next example.

Works by six or more authors
(Woods et al., 1988, p. 112)
Works from a secondary source
(as cited in Shockey, 1994, p. 54)
Works with no author
("Finding Balance," 1982)

Government documents
(United States Forest Service, 1992)



Students must avoid plagiarism by citing any material that is paraphrased and/or quoted from other sources. Plagiarism is a violation of the WSU Student Code and is not acceptable. (See student code if necessary.  IV.D.2.b).
WSU's plagiarism policy extends to the use of materials such as photographs, charts, figures, tables, and graphs. Any use of these materials without proper citation is plagiarism. Any use of copyrighted materials is not allowed and is grounds for exclusion from Ergo. Photographs must be the author's original work. Plagiarism even extends to your own published work as discussed in this article.